In bookkeeping and accounting, assets and liabilities are reflected on a company’s balance sheet. The easiest way to think about Assets are as things your company or firm owns, and liabilities are the things you owe to other people. As per the U.S. Small Business Administration, and GAAP, your business’s assets should be more than its liabilities.
However, both assets and liabilities play a vital role in determining your business’s profitability and long-term feasibility. Moreover, companies should be focused on managing both assets and liabilities efficiently.
We know Assets increase business equity and add value, meanwhile Liabilities decrease your company’s equity and value. The more assets than liabilities, the stronger is the financial position of your company.
But if your liabilities are larger than your assets, you’re risking going out of business. Hence, it is crucial in accounting for service-based businesses to evaluate assets and liabilities efficiently as they can give us important information on a companies’ finances.
Types of Assets
Assets are divided into tangible and intangible assets.
Tangible assets are assets you can touch, for example, vehicles and land. Intangibles are the ones that don’t have any physical presence but do add value to the company, for example brand recognition, proprietary software, contracts and copyrights.
Current Assets are assets that can be converted into cash in one operating cycle of a manufacturing process. For example, marketable securities, cash equivalents, short-term deposits, stock, etc. are all classified as current assets. Current assets are also known as short-term assets (think of them as highly liquid).
Fixed assets are the opposite of current assets. These are the ones that are difficult to convert into cash. They have a long commercial life and are deployed by the company for its operations. For example, building, land, equipment, machinery, trademarks, patents, etc. are fixed assets. Fixed assets are also known as long-term assets or hard assets.
Assets that are used for daily operations and for generating revenue are known as operating assets. For example, stock, copyright, goodwill, cash, machinery, etc. are classified as operating assets.
Un like operating assets these assets are not used for daily operations. However, they still help in generating revenue. Some examples include Income from fixed deposits, short-term investments, vacant land, etc. all are non-operating assets.
Types of Liabilities
Liabilities are divided into short-term and long-term liabilities. Let’s take a better look at them.
These are short-term liabilities that are due within one year from the balance sheet date. These are short-term in nature and are used for funding current assets. Sundry creditors, short-term bank borrowings such as overdraft, cash credit, advance payments received from clients, etc. are current liabilities.
Also known as deferred liabilities and fixed liabilities are long-term liabilities representing long-term finance. Any payment that is to be made after one year from the balance sheet is deferred liability for the company.
These are incurred to acquire fixed assets like plant and machinery, land, equipment, building, etc. and are repaid after a specific period. Debentures and long-term loans from banks are types of deferred liabilities.
These liabilities may or may not occur for a company during its operation. It is entirely contingent upon a particular set of situations. For example, lawsuits, claims against product warranty, loan guarantees, etc. are types of contingent liabilities.
It is mandatory for companies to mention the value of their contingent liabilities as a footnote in the balance sheet.
Balance Sheet Ratios
Once you have created your balance then you can start analyzing it even further using ratios, below are examples of some important and useful ratios all businesses of any size should be looking at:
Solvency Ratio (measures: companies’ ability to meet its debt obligations / long term)
These ratios are utilized to break down your firms’ cash, assets, and obligations. Through these ratios, you are trying to check whether your firm has enough assets and cash to keep working efficiently. The higher the ratio, the better-off your company is.
Quick Ratio (measures: companies’ ability to meet its short-term obligations. Think, short-term liquidity, it is more conservative than current ratio)
The quick ratio formula is liquid assets / current liabilities. Where Liquid assets are Cash and Cash Equivalents + Marketable Securities + Accounts Receivable.
This is an important ratio because it lets you measure your business ability to turn assets in to cash, which is then used to pay off liabilities (debts). Remember, the higher the Quick ratio is the better-off your company will be at paying off its debts.
Current Ratio (measures: companies’ ability to meet its short-term obligations / due within one year)
The current ratio formula is = Current Assets / Current Liabilities.
This ratio exhibits your private venture's capacity to take care of your short-term liabilities. A high ratio implies that your company can take care of short-term commitments successfully, while a lower ratio means your company will most likely have trouble paying off short-term debt, and this a red flag that all business owners need to learn how to spot.
As we know the accounting formula used calculate a companies’ net worth is:
Total Assets - Total Liabilities = Equity
Let’s remember that equity implies your company’s net worth. It is also known as your business’s capital. As a rule of thumb equity should always be positive, the higher the equity, the better for your business.
In bookkeeping and accounting business owners should periodically review their balance sheet to ensure liabilities are not growing faster than the assets, and they should do a deep-dive in to each one of the accounts as business owners can spot important information not found anywhere else in your financials.
It is also important to note that all business owners need to keep an eye on their balance sheet ratios as they give off alerts and warning signs that things need to be taken care of before they get worse.
If you are having a hard time understanding your company’s balance sheet or do not have these reporting capabilities, please do not hesitate to contact us. At Irazu Advisors we are here to help you on your path to growth and profitability.
In this article we will explore the differences between the Profit and Loss Statement and the Balance Sheet.
Small business owners have to manage many things from dealing with customers to managing employees. Amidst all this, they also have to keep an eye on their business activities and profitability.
In Finance and Accounting there are three financial statements that are the core component of all financial matters in any company, big or small.
These three financial statements are: The Profit and Loss statement, Balance Sheet and the Cash Flow statement. In this article we will focus on the P&L and the Balance sheet, and in coming weeks we will talk more about the cash flow statement later we will do a deep dive in to how to link all of the three statements together and what this tells us about the financial health of a company or firm.
As a summary the overall and fundamental objective of these financial statements is to help business owners know which areas are performing well and which areas need improvement. Is your firm lean on overhead and costs but is taking too long to collect money for services rendered? Most likely you will find out how to solve these issues by doing a quick analysis of your accounts payable and receivables, both of which can be found on the Balance sheet.
It is important to note that in accounting for service-based business both financial statements serve different purposes. Let’s look at the difference between these two financial statements:
Profit and Loss Statement
The Profit and Loss Statement, often called as the income statement or P&L for short, indicates the profitability of your business over a given period in time. In short, it shows you how much revenue you have earned and how much expenses you have incurred in a fiscal year or a fiscal quarter.
Revenue refers to money that is received from the sale of goods and services or interest received from a loan while expenses include taxes, insurance, utilities, rent payments, etc.
The formula to calculate the profit is really simple: Revenues minus Expenses.
If it’s a positive figure, it is your net income. However, if it's a negative number, it is your net loss.
The Profit and Loss statement helps to know how well your business is performing. If it is not performing well, business owners should make necessary changes; otherwise, the company will probably run in to financial trouble well before you even notice.
It is important to note that a positive profit in your P&L statement does not actually mean you have a positive cash flow, or money coming in to cover all of your expenses, many times companies will post a profit but in reality they are cash poor and have liquidity or solvency issues (we will talk more about this on our next article).
The Balance Sheet is composed of the business’ assets, liabilities and shareholders’ equity. It is also known as a statement of financial position that shows the assets and liabilities of your business.
But what are Assets? Easy, Assets are things that your company owns like accounts receivable (sales made but not necessarily money received), Inventory, Cash, Equipment such as Property Plant or Equipment (PPE), Vehicles, Furniture, you get the idea it is things you or your company owns and help you make money. They’re categorized on the balance sheet and hold a measurable value.
What about Liabilities? Liabilities are money that a company owes, some examples of liabilities are Loans, Mortgages, Accounts Payable, Differed Revenues, Accrued Expenses, etc.
All the company’s debts are liabilities. Liabilities are also classified into short-term and long-term on the balance sheet.
The Balance Sheet also includes owner’s equity (shareholder’s equity) which is the difference between assets minus liabilities. It is the money left that you can take ownership of.
Inside of shareholder’s equity is an account called retained earnings this one is important because if shows us the amount of profit the company has reinvested or used to pay down debt, instead of being distributed to shareholders as dividends.
Overall the Balance Sheet shows a bigger picture by telling your business worth at a specific
point in time and not spread over the course of a time period like the P&L statement. It also tells us what we own (Assets) and what we owe (Liabilities).
Profit and Loss vs Balance Sheet
The Balance Sheet statement talks about your financial status, whereas the Profit and Loss statement shows a comparison of your spending and your income. However, both statements can be used together to analyze your company’s operational efficiency.
You can determine your company’s inventory turnover and accounts receivable turnover. Inventory turnover is evaluated by dividing annual cost of goods sold by the inventory balance. For example, if the annual cost of goods sold is $6,00,000 per year and $2,00,000 per year is the inventory balance, then your inventory turns over three times per year.
Accounts receivable turnover is evaluated by dividing total sales from the profit and loss statement by the accounts receivable balance. For example, if total sales are $1.5 million and balance in accounts receivable is $100,000, then your accounts receivable turnover is 15 times per year.
Also, both these statements can help to determine your company’s ability to pay its debts. It is done by dividing the annual cash flow by the total amount of principal payments on debt. A generally accepted ratio is $3 in cash flow for each $1 of principal payment.
Profit and Loss and Balance Sheet statements play an important role in your bookkeeping and accounting system as it benefits business owners in multiple areas. However, as noted at the beginning of the article these are not the only statements to look at when analyzing a business financial performance, this is why later we will discuss more about the Cash Flow statement and what it tells us about a company and down the road we will also learn how to tie all of the three financial statements together and what to do with that information.
A side note from the editor: Business owners should regularly update all financial documents for transparency, reporting and analytics and obviously tax reasons. If you have any questions regarding financial statements and need a hand understanding them better, please do not hesitate to contact us, the Irazu Advisors continuing education team will gladly help you out better understanding your company’s finances.